Glanzmann’s disease: poor blood clotting, wound recovery

Platelets are responsible for stabilizing the blood. If there is Glanzmann’s disease, the surface of the platelets does not contain a certain protein, which means that clotting does not take place or is difficult. It means that the person may have heavy bleeding during wounds, surgery, childbirth or menstruation, which lasts for a long time. What does this disease mean, how can it be inherited from the parents and how is it treated with interventions?

Glanzmann’s disease

  • Function of platelets
  • Necessity for wound repair
  • The lack of a protein
  • Gene acquired from parents
  • Symptoms of Glanzmann’s disease
  • How is it treated?

Function of platelets

Platelets, also called thrombocytes, are directly involved in the formation of clots and the control of bleeding. If damage occurs to the body (internal or external), the platelets will ensure that the wound gradually stops bleeding. The platelets have barbs that keep the particles stuck together. In addition, it must also have certain proteins to increase its stickability, so to speak. This combination ensures that platelets normally close the wound, after which further wound repair can take place.

Necessity for wound repair

A wound can only heal if the bleeding has been stopped. As soon as blood can no longer pass through the passage, epithelium will start to form. This is a first step towards having the original shape restored. Consider a skin wound such as a cut, where the wound is slightly closed with a plaster. The platelets will quickly close the connection, causing the bleeding to stop quickly. Epithelial formation will then take place, so that the wound and skin structure are restored to their former glory. Initially the wound will still be moist and the newly formed layer will be soft, but over time the wound will heal.

The lack of a protein

In case of hemorrhage, proteins on the surface of the platelets are necessary to achieve rapid clotting. This disease lacks a protein called glycoprotein, which can cause bleeding to persist for a long time. Wound recovery is slow, and the person is increasingly susceptible to accidents. In the event of operations or accidents, long recovery must be taken into account.

Gene acquired from parents

Both parents are carriers of the gene, which can cause serious problems for the child. If only one parent is a carrier, the child will also be a carrier, but will not suffer the consequences. This also means that the disease is a relatively rare condition. The disease occurs in both sexes, but the consequences can be different. What are the symptoms?

Symptoms of Glanzmann’s disease

Because the blood staunches very slowly, it has a great influence on wounds, bumps and the monthly period. Any form of bleeding will continue for a long time. Consider a visit to the dentist or having your tonsils removed. Caution should therefore always be exercised if a surgical procedure is performed. It can manifest itself in the following symptoms:

  • a lot of blood loss during operations or other medical procedures;
  • in case of internal bleeding it can cause a lot of pressure and a lot of damage;
  • slow healing of wounds, persistent bleeding;
  • menstruation is seriously prolonged and bleeding may be heavy;
  • bruising easily without any cause or noticeable impact;
  • in the event of a cerebral haemorrhage it will be severe, and the brain damage is also immense;
  • During childbirth, the woman will have severe, prolonged bleeding, which drains blood from the rest of the body. Part of the pituitary gland may die. It can lead to Sheehan’s syndrome, in which the woman can no longer breastfeed and the cessation of menstruation. In addition, it can cause hypopituitarism, in which the body does not receive enough hormone-producing substances. During childbirth, much attention must be paid to treatment to avoid serious consequences.

How is it treated?

If it has been determined that one has Glanzmann’s disease, then action can be taken. Primary attention of the treatment will take place if one has to undergo a medical procedure. Think of the dentist, surgery or childbirth, but also after an accident. A number of actions can be considered to stimulate haemostasis. Coagulation medication, such as Recombinant, can be used preventively. However, in the event of an accident, an infusion with immigrant platelets will often be given so that internal bleeding can clot more quickly. If it concerns heavy menstrual bleeding, its influence can be limited through hormonal treatment.

Once the disease has been diagnosed, it is always necessary to avoid accidents. In addition, the person must be careful. Please be informed by the treating physician if you need to undergo a medical procedure.

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